For the optimization purpose of the ultrasound-assisted extraction procedure, the response surface methodology (RSM) with the 2 4 I-optimal design was used, where two independent four-level variables were considered, i.e., time of the extraction process (A: 10, 20, 40, or 60 min) and power of the ultrasound (B: 30, 60, 120, or 240 W). [15] Ultrasonic Water or Solvent Extraction. Ultrasonic assisted extraction is an emerging, environmentally friendly technique which enhances the extraction efficiency, reduces energy consumption, and lowers the extraction time. Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) is one of the modifications, where the extraction process is assisted with the usage of ultrasound waves. The thesis has not been accepted for any . Maceration. The principle of this technique involves acoustic cavitation that is promoted by the system.

Ultrasound-assisted extraction is a research topic, which affects several fields of modern plant-based chemistry. A huge advantage of ultrasonic extraction is the broad selection of solvents to choose from. The extraction conditions were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) and Central Composite Design (CCD).

extraction assisted by microwave or ultrasound is intended to overcome these difficulties by increasing extraction efficiency, selectivity and kinetics [6].

Therefore, the polarity of the . UAE is based on the principle of acoustic cavitation ultrasound that induced via a series of compression and rarefaction waves in the molecules of the medium through which it is capable of damaging the cell walls of plant matrix as well as favouring the release of bioactive compounds With the principles of circular economy . Much of the work was carried out under European community grants under the COPERNICUS programme and in a COST D10 network. 303-313, 2001. Several extraction methods for bioactive compounds include solvent based, percolation, ultrasound-assisted, microwave-assisted, microwave-hydrodistillation and supercritical fluid based, enzyme-assisted, solvent-free microwave and have been applied for maximum recovery of essential oils from plant matrices. A study on the extraction of catechin (1, Fig. In ultrasound assisted plant-based protein applications, the duration for which protein substrate/extracts are exposed is very crucial with respect to yield and functional properties. Ultrasound-assisted extraction could be used to treat larger quantities of raw materials, using existing large-scale ultrasound extraction reactors in the food or chemical industries.

This paper presents a review of the ultrasonically assisted extraction of bioactive principles from herbs.

The principle of acoustic cavitation ultrasound which is explained by a series of compression and rarefaction waves induced in the molecules of the medium and the collapse of the bubble during the process of UAE may be discussed. This is a very simple extraction method with the disadvantage of long extraction time and low extraction efficiency. Lee A. Y., Moon B. C., Kim W. J. and Choi G. 2019 Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction Process and Method Validation . When ultrasound is applied to a product with solid or fluid characteristics, the passage of acoustic waves and acoustic cavitation generates different mechanisms responsible for modifications in the original matrix of the sample. In many analytical situations, UAE is an expeditious, inexpensive and efficient alternative to conventional extraction techniques, and, in some cases, even to supercritical fluid and microwave-assisted extraction. Natural Product Extraction: Principles and Applications . The application of ultrasound during short periods of maceration was effective in producing a greater yield of alkaloid than obtainable by conventional procedures and when applied during the process of continuous solvent extraction, ultrasound proved to be slightly more efficient in liberating the desired alkaloids from the drug. Several extraction methods for bioactive compounds include solvent based, percolation, ultrasound-assisted, microwave-assisted, microwave-hydrodistillation and supercritical fluid based, enzyme-assisted, solvent-free microwave and have been applied for maximum recovery of essential oils from plant matrices.

These collisions generations heat which in turn separates the constituents present in the sample. Ultrasound-assisted Extraction of Natural Colorants . Ultrasonic-assisted extraction is a method used to reduce extraction time and increase yield compared to conventional methods (hydrolysis in an acid medium). The results of input energy and radical formation correlated with the calculated values for the anti-nodal point (/4; 16.85 mm, maximum amplitude) of . 2) Extraction solvent is added. The results were compared to conventional Soxhlet extraction using physicochemical characterization and gravimetric analysis and showed a . Compared with maceration, infusion or decoction, it improves the process decreasing both operating time and temperature while increasing the extraction yield. The antioxidant and antibacterial . U frequency affects the. All these techniques can shorten extraction time and lower solvent consumption compared to conventional methods, such as maceration, Soxhlet extraction, and hydrodistillation [19,20]. Microwave assisted extraction is one of the advanced Ultrasound-assisted extraction gives higher extraction yield in less time as compared to batch extraction (0.41 mg/g in 90 min) and Soxhlet extraction(0.7 mg/g in 360 min). In this research, for the first time, an alternative method to produce Ribes nigrum bud derivatives is presented. Ultrasonic-assisted Extraction Process. Practical applications The present study reports an extraction protocol assisted by ultrasound, which is a rapid protocol that increases the amount of polymeric matter extracted, reduces the cellular digestion step with sodium hypochlorite and eliminates the use of organic solvents. Pulsed ultrasound-assisted extraction (PUAE), using a food-grade solvent according to green . It was found that rice bran oil extraction can be efficiently performed in 30 min under high-intensity ultrasound either using hexane or a basic aqueous solution.

The principle of this technique involves acoustic cavitation that is promoted by the system. In general, significant positive results have been reported for the use of UAE in a variety of applications, especially for the improvement of 'mass transfer', which is the fundamental mechanism of any extraction . The . transfer principles occurred in ultrasound assisted extraction, the driving force for mass transfer was considered to be the Ultrasound in the solvent producing cavitation accelerates the dissolution and diffusion of the solute as well as the heat transfer, which improves the extraction efficiency. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) is one of the new green techniques that has been studied due to its process advantages that include high yields, short extraction times and nonutilization of elevated temperatures. The effect of ultrasonic probe depth and power input parameters on the type and amount of products extracted was assessed. . Secondorder polynomial mathematical models . The effects considered in the Experimental Design were: Granulometry, Extraction time, Acoustic Power and Acoustic Impedance.

Principle of microwave assisted extraction Microwave assisted extraction works on the principle of heat generation using microwaves. 3) Sonotrode is placed in contact with sample. This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public . The ultrasound-assisted extraction was done under two frequencies for 1, 2, 3, 24, and 48 hours at temperature 35 C. The extracts were filtered through a . 10-18 Among them, the conventional . It requires an expensive cash investment to purchase the requisite equipment, but once the operation is up and running ultrasonic extractions methods are much cheaper than the typical process. Much of the work was carried out under European community grants under the COPERNICUS. . Likewise, characterization studies by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR . Ultrasonic extraction involves the use of ultrasonic waves on plant material in order to disrupt the plant membranes and cell-walls and improve the extraction of the desired substances. Ultrasound-assisted extraction is also a suitable method for the extraction . Ultrasound assisted extraction yielded total polyphenols of 2756.86 (probe type) and 2954.36 (bath type) mg GAE/100 g of dry leaves whereas, in conventional .

chemistry'' principles.

10-18 Among them, the conventional .

The ultrasound-assisted extraction is based on the working principle of acoustic or ultrasonic cavitation. This paper presents a review of the ultrasonically assisted extraction of bioactive principles from herbs. The main principle is based on the difference in the adsorption of pyranosides or furanosides with different configurations by different fillers. <P />The . Along with microwave assisted extraction, this is also a very effective and fast method for extraction.

Nipornram S., Tochampa W., Rattanatraiwong P., Singanusong R. (2018): Optimization of low power ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), also called ultrasonic extraction or sonication, uses ultrasonic wave energy in the extraction. "An overview of the ultrasonically assisted extraction of bioactive principles from herbs", Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, v. 8, pp. 1) Sample is placed in vessel. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction (UAE) processing has attracted growing interest in the field of food science and technology. 5) Sample ready for clean-up process. One emerging form of this kind of extraction is Ultrasonic Cavitation-Assisted Extraction (UCAE). During UCAE, high-powered ultrasonic waves are directed toward . All the reported applications have shown that ultrasound-assisted extraction is a green and economically viable alternative to conventional techniques for food and natural products. Ultrasoundassisted Extraction. Practical applications In this paper, the meta-mordanting method was . Ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE) is an interesting process to obtain high valuable compounds and could contribute to the increase in the value of some food by-products when used as sources of natural compounds. .

Maximum amount of carotenoids recovered was 16.11 mg/L obtained by ultrasonic assisting using at ultrasonic time 4.5 min, solvent-solid ratio (10:10), extraction power of 187 W, N-hexane . A study of ultrasonically assisted extraction of bioactive principles from Quillaja Saponaria Molina (Quillay) is presented. Then, the effects of five single factors on adenosine content including pH, enzyme-to-material ratio . Vietnamese Cordyceps militaris ( C. militaris ) has long been recognized as one of the most valuable traditional Chinese medicines.

The optimum ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions for the flavonoids were obtained by the model: The ratio of solid to liquid was 1/20, the number of replications for higher extraction ratio was 5, ethanol concentration was 59.77%, extraction temperature was 45.13 C, extraction time was 33.69 min, and ultrasonic power was 76.94 W. . The effects of ultrasound arises from the cavitation phenomena caused by . . This study aims to determine the influence of (1) ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), (2) microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and (3) a combination of ultrasound-microwave-assisted extraction (UMAE) on the yields of fucose-sulphated polysaccharides (FSPs), total soluble carbohydrates and antioxidants extracted from A. nodosum. Herein, a new ultrasound-assisted cold brewing (UAC) method was established.

Ultrasonic-assisted extraction often results in intramolecular depolymerization and side-chain scission, resulting in oligosaccharide formation (Ogutu et al., 2015). Ultrasonication time depends on the intensity of the power applied to the sonoreactor and the frequency generated in the ultrasonic system [32].

Compared to other advanced extraction techniques, UAE is more economic, eco-friendly, and convenient (Teng et al., 2016). Extraction rates of carvone and limonene by ultrasound-assisted extraction with hexane were 1.3-2 times more rapid than those by the conventional extraction depending on temperature The ultrasound-assisted extraction of wedelolactone from Eclipta alba is an effective way of extraction with the advantages of lower time and higher extraction. Ultrasonic extraction is used in the food, nutritional supplement and pharmaceutical industry to release bioactive compounds such as vitamins, polyphenols, polysaccharides, cannabinoids and other phytochemicals from botanicals. This great extraction efficiency by ultrasonic treatment is mainly attributed to its mechanical effects (including microjetting and microstreaming), which promote targeted compounds to move from the sample matrix into the solvent. The waves of acoustic energy . ultrasonic extraction is the use of ultrasonic radiation pressure produced by strong cavitation effect, the disturbance effect, high acceleration, breaking and mixing function of multistage effect, increase material molecular motion frequency and speed, increase the solvent penetration, increasing the target component into the solvent, promote General principles. The extraction of this compound by using conventional method (soxhlet extraction) resulted low yield and longer processing time. On the other hand, microwave-assisted extraction implies the formation of high-energy electromagnetic waves changing . Pulsed ultrasound-assisted extraction (PUAE), using a food-grade solvent according to green . Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) An ultrasound instrument (Branson 3510, Danbury, USA) with a volume of 5.7 L, a frequency of 42 kHz and an input power of 100 W was used in the experiments. Ultrasound assisted extraction acts primarily upon the kinetic of the extraction process, and secondarily upon the interfacial area, through the eventual disintegration of larger particles. Contrary to conventional methods for phycocyanin and chlorophyll extractions that include time-consuming and low efficient maceration, freezing, and thawing, .

The waves of acoustic energy promote cycles of compression and rarefaction of the molecules in the solution. Much of the work was carried out under European community grants under the COPERNICUS programme and in a COST D10 network.

ultrasonic extraction of bioactive principles from plants has also been reviewed [12]. This research was aimed to extract phycocyanin by using an extraction assisted by ultrasound irradiation. 2.4.1 Extraction Principles and Mechanisms of Solvent 19 2.4.2 Extraction Principles and Mechanisms of Ultrasonic 20 2.5 Solvent Used 22 . A range of nonpolar to polar solvents were used for the With the principles of circular economy . According to the principles of .

militaris by ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction method (UAEE) using water as a solvent. The feasibility of UAC was assessed by comparison with main physicochemical characteristics, non-volatile and volatile compounds in coffee extracts produced by hot brewing and .

The ultrasonically assisted extraction of bioactive principles from herbs has been reviewed [6]. Ultrasound-assisted extraction is an effective method for the extraction of anthocyanins from mulberry using 63.8% methanol with 1% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), 43.2C extraction temperature, 23.8 (v/w) liquid-to-solid ratio, and 40 min extraction time Zou [87]. Ultrasonic-assisted Extraction (UAE) is a rapid and effective extraction technique that uses ultrasound to generate rapid movement of solvents, resulting in a higher mass transfer speed as well as acceleration of extraction. 6. Daniella Pingret, AnneSylvie FabianoTixier and Farid Chemat Ultrasound has been increasingly used in the food domain in processing, preservation and extraction processes. Keywords: Using the Box-Behnken software principle, . The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) creates cavitation of small bubbles in the solvent due to the passage of ultrasound waves allowing for a greater penetration of the solvent within the material increasing the surface area. .

. This paper presents a review of the ultrasonically assisted extraction of bioactive principles from herbs. The extraction process (Sono-Soxhlet) of oils from crushed dried olives was performed using an ultrasonic horn in situ to provided rapid and complete recovery of analytes from the matrix.

.

Ultrasound also enhances the extraction of heat sensible bioactive compounds by lowering the extraction temperature. Furthermore, it is easy to handle, safe, economical and reproducible due to the fact that this technology allows its development under conditions of atmospheric pressure and at an ambient temperature [6,7].

Ultrasound also enhances the extraction of heat sensible bioactive compounds by lowering the extraction temperature. Ultrasound assisted extraction acts primarily upon the kinetic of the extraction process, and secondarily upon the interfacial area, through the eventual disintegration of larger particles. An improvement of Soxhlet extraction was designed and developed. 1 1 Screening the effect of four ultrasound-assisted extraction parameters on hesperidin and 2 phenolic acid content of aqueous citrus pomace extracts 3 4. 5. Ultrasonic assisted extraction is an emerging, environmentally friendly technique which enhances the extraction efficiency, reduces energy consumption, and lowers the extraction time. Mason. . One of the compounds is phycocyanin as also known for antioxidant use. These effects of ultrasound can also be used . Micro or Nano-emulsion preparation Ultrasound assisted extraction is a method for extracting various components from a mixture using ultrasound. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) is a good method to extract compounds from a solid material through cavitation. The various polysaccharides in . Running Title: Screening the effect of four ultrasound-assisted extraction parameters . A major advantage of ultrasound assisted extraction technique is that it does not generate heat.

Sonication of sample. Particle disruption could also be enhanced by increasing hydrostatic pressure and viscosity. Ultrasonically assisted isolation of phytochemicals and bioactive compounds can be performed in solvents such as water, ethanol, methanol, isopropanol, water/ethanol mixtures, glycerine, vegetable oils etc. As the name implies . Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and conventional extraction of vanillin and its quantification by HPLC in pods of Vanilla planifolia is described. It could be used for the extraction of thermolabile components.].

Ultrasound-assisted extraction is a research topic, which affects several fields of modern plant-based chemistry. Illicium verum is widely cultivated in southern China especially in Guangxi province. In this study, adenosine was extracted from Vietnamese C . Konstantinos Papoutsisa,*, Penta Pristijonoa, John B. Goldinga,b, Costas E. Stathopoulosc, 7. Ultrasound-assisted extraction is a research topic, which affects several fields of modern plant-based chemistry.

Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction (UAE) stands out as a sustainable alternative which requires a moderate investment of solvent and energy.

All the reported applications have shown that ultrasound-assisted extraction is a green and economically viable alternative to conventional techniques for food and natural products. Ultrasound is an emerging technology, which has been highly explored in the food area to improve processes and products. In particular, UAE is based on the principle of acoustic Michael C. Bowyera,Christopher J. Scarletta, Quan V . The results showed that the ultrasonic assisted extraction method can obtain more carotenoids than others. The extraction efficiency obtained with ultrasound could be increased by addition of glass beads which promote particle disruption by focusing the energy released by cavitation, and by physical crushing. Pulsed ultrasound-assisted extraction (PUAE), using a food-grade solvent according to green chemistry principles, has been employed and. In this context, the use of ultrasound or sonication to break the cell membranes has the advantage of reducing considerably the extraction time and increasing the extract yield. The principle of UAE is to create very small air bubbles producing high shear forces and temperatures due to their size increasing to a critical point and imploding .

The data indicate that the cellulase-ultrasonic assisted extraction technology has the potential be used for the industrial production of flavonoids from I. verum. In this research, for the first time, an alternative method to produce Ribes nigrum bud derivatives is presented.

Ultrasound-assisted extraction of hemicellulose and phenolic compounds from bamboo bast fibre powder was investigated.

The extraction efficiency of madder, Reseda, and pomegranate peel in water with the ultrasound-assisted method was 23%, 33%, and 29%, respectively. 4) Ultrasound cavities propagation and implosion leads to localized high temperatures and pressures resulting in enhanced extraction. extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), and microwave-assisted extraction, have been developed. Two major factors that increase the efficiency of using ultrasound waves are cell disruption and the effective mass transfer [ 5 ]. According to Mustafa and Turner (2011), the choice of solvent is based on the principle of "like dissolve like"; compounds are more easily dissolved in solvents having similar solubility properties. Using Ultrasonic-Assisted Solvent Extraction Method" is the result of my own research except as cited in the references.

This work compared the effects of pulsed electric fields (PEF) and ultrasound (US) technologies on the extent of cell disintegration of two Mediterranean herb tissues (Origanum vulgare L., Thymus serpyllum L.), as well as on the extractability of phenolic compounds during the subsequent hydroalcoholic extraction (0%-50% ethanol in water, v/v) for up to 4 h.

Extraction (ASE) and Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction (UAE) are invented to compensate the increasing demand of natural products. Ultrasound-assisted Extraction of Bayberry Tannin and Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology. These techniques reduced the consumption of organic solvent, enabled automation and shortened extraction time (Devgun et al., 2009; Chan et al., 2011). 1) from Arbutus unedo L. fruits using maceration, microwave-assisted and ultrasound extraction techniques showed that microwave-assisted extraction (MAE . All the reported applications have shown that ultrasound-assisted extraction is a green and economically viable alternative to conventional techniques for food and natural products. . MIcrowaves hit the solvent and make the solvent molecules vibrate and colloid with each other. Pulsed ultrasound-assisted extraction (PUAE), using a food-grade solvent according to green chemistry principles, has been employed and. Some aspects of classical and non-conventional extraction procedures are also presented and briefly discussed.

. Through pressure changes occurs the formation and collapse of .

It has been reported that ultrasound-assisted processing (UAP) increased protein extraction from various sources including the skins of clown featherback fish (Chitala ornate) 9, rice bran 10, and . 2002 Show 10 more . . It was performed to extract essential oil from Zataria multiflora.

To address the problem it was studied the effects that could influence the extraction process through a two-level Factorial Design. A threelevel, fourfactor Box-Behnken response surface design was used in this study to investigate the influence of process variables (extraction temperature, ultrasonic power, extraction time and solidliquid ratio) on the ultrasoundassisted extraction of natural pigments (betacyanin and betaxanthin) from Amaranthus tricolor L leaves. Its fruits has been traditionally used in Chinese medicine. Ultrasound Assisted Processing Ultrasonic cannabis extraction, also referred to as sonication, has become increasingly popular. Sidaguri (Sida rhombifolia) is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions and has been reported to possess many bioactive compounds that are beneficial for human health, including polyphenolics having antioxidant activities.The objective of this study was (1) to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of Sidaguri and (2) to evaluate antioxidant activities of extracts .

Some aspects of classical and non-conventional extraction procedures are also presented and briefly discussed. A long extraction time for traditional cold coffee brewing considerably reduces the production efficiency of this type of beverage. Sequential ultrasound-microwave associated extraction (SUMAE) is a combination of ultrasound waves and microwaves energies in which ultrasonic extraction is used as a pretreatment. Principle of UAE.

Sainampueng) peel. Compared with maceration, infusion or decoction, it improves the process decreasing both operating time and temperature while increasing the extraction yield.